CARNEGIE CLASSIFICATIONS

The Carnegie classification includes all colleges and universities in the United States that are degree-granting and accredited by an agency recognized by the U.S. Secretary of Education. Technical notes and classification definitions follow.

TECHNICAL NOTES

The Carnegie Classification utilizes survey data from the Department of Education's Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), the National Science Foundation, The College Board, and the 1994 Higher Education Directory published by Higher Education Publications Inc. (HEP).

The 1994 Higher Education Directory provided the universe of postsecondary institutions. This book lists information on over 3,600 accredited, degree-granting colleges and universities and more than 100 central or system offices. In addition, this reference was used to verify information on proper names, state, FICE identification, and affiliation or control.

The HEP directories published since 1987 were used to track institutions that have opened, closed, merged, lost accreditation status, or changed their names.

The U.S. Department of Education's Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System Completions survey 1988-89, 1989-90, and 1990-91 provided all data on degree conferral. These data are self-reported and collected annually by the Department of Education. Three-year averages of degree data were used to determine each institution's placement. Information on the number and type of disciplines in which degrees were awarded came from the IPEDS Completions 1990-91 survey.

Data on the federal support for institutions of higher education for fiscal years 1989, 1990, and 1991 are available from the National Science Foundation's annual report called "Federal Support to Universities, Colleges, and Nonprofit Institutions." These data are reported to NSF by 15 federal agencies. Three-year averages of total federal obligations were calculated for both categories of research universities.

The variables employed in determining selectivity for the Baccalaureate (Liberal Arts) Colleges I category were: entrance examination scores for fall 1992 first-year students (the SAT values used were ranges incorporating the 25th and 75th percentile scores; the Enhanced ACT scores used similar ranges); and the percentage of fall 1992 first-year students who ranked in the top quarter and top half of their class.

Schools that lacked some of the aforementioned data were included if they demonstrated considerable strength in any one category.

All the Tribal Colleges are members of the American Indian Higher Education Consortium. Three of them are not formally under tribal control and are not located on reservations. A few of the Tribal Colleges are not listed in the HEP 1994 Higher Education Directory.

The Specialized Institutions are free-standing campuses. They do not represent a comprehensive list of any specific type of institution.

The data used to classify institutions can be obtained from the original sources. The total federal obligations figures come from the National Science Foundation; degree-conferral material comes from the U.S. Department of Education (IPEDS); and information on institutional selectivity comes from The College Board. All of these data can be purchased from John Minter Associates, Inc., of Boulder, Colorado.

While the definitions are intended to establish mutually exclusive categories, some institutions meet the criteria for more than one group.

CARNEGIE CLASSIFICATION DEFINITIONS

Research Universities I

These institutions offer a full range of baccalaureate programs, are committed to graduate education through the doctorate, and give high priority to research. They award 50 or more doctoral degrees1 each year. In addition, they receive annually $40 million or more in federal support2.

Research Universities II

These institutions offer a full range of baccalaureate programs, are committed to graduate education through the doctorate, and give high priority to research. They award 50 or more doctoral degrees1 each year. In addition, they receive annually between $15.5-million and $40-million in federal support2.

Doctoral Universities I

In addition to offering a full range of baccalaureate programs, the mission of these institutions includes a commitment to graduate education through the doctorate. They award at least 40 doctoral degrees1 annually in five or more disciplines3.

Doctoral Universities II

In addition to offering a full range of baccalaureate programs, the mission of these institutions includes a commitment to graduate education through the doctorate. They award annually at least 10 doctoral degrees--in three or more disciplines3 -- or 20 or more doctoral degrees in one or more disciplines.

Master's (Comprehensive) Universities And Colleges I

These institutions offer a full range of baccalaureate programs and are committed to graduate education through the master's degree. They award 40 or more master's degrees annually in three or more disciplines3.

Master's (Comprehensive) Universities And Colleges II

These institutions offer a full range of baccalaureate programs and are committed to graduate education through the master's degree. They award 20 or more master's degrees annually in one or more disciplines.

Baccalaureate (liberal arts) colleges I

These institutions are primarily undergraduate colleges with major emphasis on baccalaureate degree programs. They are selective in admissions and award 40 per cent or more of their baccalaureate degrees in liberal arts fields4.

Baccalaureate (liberal arts) colleges II

These institutions are primarily undergraduate colleges with major emphasis on baccalaureate degree programs. They are less selective in admissions or they award less than 40 per cent of their baccalaureate degrees in liberal arts fields4.

Associate of arts colleges

These institutions offer associate of arts certificate or degree programs and, with few exceptions, offer no baccalaureate degrees5.

Professional schools and specialized institutions

These institutions offer degrees ranging from the bachelor's to the doctorate. At least 50 per cent of the degrees awarded by these institutions are in a specialized field.

Specialized institutions include:

Theological seminaries, bible colleges and other institutions offering degrees in religion: This category includes institutions at which the primary purpose is to offer religious instruction or train members of the clergy.

Medical schools and medical centers: These institutions award most of their professional degrees in medicine. In some instances, their programs include other health professional schools, such as dentistry, pharmacy, or nursing.

Other separate health profession schools: Institutions in this category award most of their degrees in such fields as chiropractic, nursing, pharmacy, or podiatry.

Schools of engineering and technology: The institutions in this category award at least a bachelor's degree in programs limited almost exclusively to technical fields of study.

Schools of business and management: The schools in this category award most of their bachelor's or graduate degrees in business or business-related programs.

Schools of art, music, and design: Institutions in this category award most of their bachelor's or graduate degrees in art, music, design, architecture, or some combination of such fields.

Schools of law: The schools included in this category award most of their degrees in law. The list includes only institutions that are listed as separate campuses in the 1994 Higher Education Directory.

Teachers colleges: Institutions in this category award most of their bachelor's or graduate degrees in education or education-related fields.

Other specialized institutions: Institutions in this category include graduate centers, maritime academies, military institutes, and institutions that do not fit any other classification category. Tribal colleges: These colleges are, with few exceptions, tribally controlled and located on reservations. They are all members of the American Indian Higher Education Consortium.

NOTES:

1 Doctoral degrees include Doctor of Education, Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor of Public Health, and the Ph.D. in any field.

2 Total federal obligation figures are available from the National Science Foundation's annual report called "Federal Support to Universities, Colleges, and Nonprofit Institutions." The years used in averaging total federal obligations are 1989, 1990, and 1991.

3 Distinct disciplines are determined by the U.S. Department of Education's "Classification of Instructional Programs" 4-digit series.

4 The liberal-arts disciplines include area and ethnic studies, English language and literature, foreign languages, letters, liberal and general studies, life sciences, mathematics, multi- and interdisciplinary studies, philosophy and religion, physical sciences, psychology, social sciences, and the visual and performing arts. The occupational and technical disciplines include agriculture, allied health, architecture, business and management, communications, conservation and natural resources, education, engineering, health sciences, home economics, law and legal studies, library and archival sciences, marketing and distribution, military sciences, protective services, public administration and services, and theology.

5 This group includes community, junior, and technical colleges.




Updated: April 5, 2012